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The Science Behind The Technology

* Does it defy laws of thermodynamics ?

* How the natural energy is harvested ?

* Is it simply rapid oxidation of metals ?

The Science:

VIDEOS: 

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Firstly, it is perfectly understandable that anyone would have a sceptical view of this technology. Therefore we will first address this and present our side of the coin. A common statement posted; "no one would invest the degree of time and effort into such an elaborate scam and not be taking handouts from the public or government grants". Hours of time-stamped cctv footage, 108,000 spreadsheet data entries generated by data-logging test equipment all viewable on the 'Verification' page.  

 

Electro-chemistry is a very broad science with many untapped discoveries yet to be uncovered. A vast selection of electrode compositions, electrolyte composition and manipulation, membranes, catalysts materials and cell structure accumulating to well over 300 possibilities before process control is introduced. Therefore, it would be unreasonable to assume the science is unfounded due to the lack of general information and is why patents were granted to a novel invention. 

In much the same way that Geologic Hydrogen is produced naturally by galvanic corrosion of metals in earths crust, a controlled process does the same but without rapid metal decay. A primary input energy simply stimulates a secondary natural galvanic energy. Accelerating naturally occurring ions to rapidly split water without attacking metal electrodes. 

The technology does not defy laws of thermodynamics:

As a logical comparison, we all accept that oil is extracted and refined to use as an energy fuel. The complete process of producing an oil based fuel consumes less energy than the net usable energy (as fuel) without violating laws of thermodynamics. Both oil and hydrogen are an existing substance that must be extracted but can be used as a fuel. Neither oil or hydrogen are 'created' energies.

Indisputable Proof.   Click to view:  Verification Overview

The law of thermodynamics allows for energy to be added from outside the isolated system. This technology supports that law since one form of energy, electrical, accelerates another form, electrical in the form of galvanic, to do work - extract a fuel. Achieving self-sustaining energy is only possible by consuming the extracted fuel to generate power and feed a little back into the system, as the first form of energy. Hydrogen is an existing element that is not created, it already exists and just needs to be extracted to use as a fuel.

Too good to be true?

Closed minded critics will apply this general cliché to any emerging technology, rather than considering each on their own merits. Historic case examples teach a good lesson in preconceived mindsets. The airplane jet engine and silicon transistor were two classic cases of ‘too good to be true’. The jet engine experienced decades of criticism. How a non-propeller type method could move air over the wings, caused the scientists to label it as an insane idea. Likewise, the concept that a simple transistor could replace the well founded vacuum tube, received the same level of criticism. All were considered too good to be true, but open mined individuals turned these technologies into disruptive, lucrative business and changed the world while the conservative minded were left wishing 'if only…..'

Not simply a rapid metal oxidation process.

Immersing reactive or less noble metals into an acid will rapidly consume the metal and release a lot of hydrogen. This technology has no resemblance to that method. Strong acids or alkaline electrolyte are not used nor are present in the by-product. If they were, then generation would have lasted for no more than 15 minutes to produce the amount of hydrogen needed to supply the PEM fuel cell. Also the acidic fumes would have destroyed the attached fuel cell. View the equipment setup on the 'Verification' page.

 

The longest single test went for 7 hours. Lab timeframes and small suitcase cell limitations were the only restraints to runtime.  Several verification tests were performed over a three month period. In addition there is the fully functioning half cubic meter cell with hours of cctv footage to view.

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Data lodging, of small suitcase verification testing unit, demonstrates efficiency increase over time as the ions accelerate faster. CLICK to ZOOM

How A  Natural Energy Source Extracts Hydrogen:

To protect the valuable hidden IP, we don't publish any of the scientific complexities. However, following is a basic explanation of the technology.

The process is not a simple synthesis, but rather a highly controlled reaction. Metals of differing voltage potentials are bi-metals in the Galvanic series. These metals are what induce a spontaneous charge within a primary cell battery. In the Ion Accelerator, the ions produced by Galvanic metals are accelerated to induce a charge potential high enough to dissociate water rapidly. 

If the ions were first introduced to a cell as stable atoms, through external electricity, then it would still require 237kj per mole or 60kWh of electricity to produce a kilogram of hydrogen. Converting an atom to an ion is very energy intensive and is why conventional electrolyzers are energy intensive and generate so much heat.

H2IL discovered and developed a technique that accelerates this natural reaction by introducing a pours ion accelerating catalyst. Splitting the OH- bonds to fuel the galvanic metal oxidation with the oxygen ion. This in turn increases a spontaneous charge potential between the cathode and the galvanic metal to dissociates water at a much faster rate.

 

A process that occurs while the atoms are ions and without chemicals, provides a condition for oxidation without rapid galvanic metal oxidation decay.  But the process must be controlled under strict conditions to prevent the electrodes from developing a resistive layer.

Click on image to view a comparison:

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A catalyst that causes the Oxygen ion to release the bound H2 molecule with ease, rather than ripping them apart. The O2 ion increases the charge potential between the Cathode and the Galvanic Rods to accelerate the bond separation.

When immersed in sea water, a natural voltage potential between galvanic metals causes oxidation that releases hydrogen. This redox reaction is typically so slight that the release of hydrogen is hardly noticeable and the decay of metals takes several years. 

This natural occurring oxidation process is enhanced to release Hydrogen from water bonds without rapid metal decay. With an efficiency greater than 2000%, only a small portion of the fuel is converted back into electricity, through fuel cells, to provide the input (reaction governing) stimulus charge.

 

The amount of hydrogen generated is only limited by scale and the volume of internal galvanic metal. For example the cubic meter cell produces 1kg/H2 for just 1.2kWh (or 1.2kW of power per kg/H2 over a one hour period) input power and accelerates by a slight increase of the input voltage.

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Data lodging, of small suitcase verification testing unit, demonstrates O/P power increase with slight rise of I/P stimulus power.  CLICK to ZOOM

Metal Consumption:

Within all electrochemical cells, including electrolyzers, electrodes decay. The Ion Accelerator is very different to conventional electrolysis that requires an input energy of 237KJ per mole of H2O or 60kWh per kg/H2

One may conclude that if only 5% of the 237kl/mole is provided by the input power then the remaining 225kj/mole must be harvested from the galvanic metals. This is a lot of energy for any non-radioactive metal to deliver, or the mass must be huge and consume rapidly.

 

Admittedly, this calculus initially stumbled the H2IL scientists when the discovery was first made many years ago. But, test after test proved a defined fact, that water can be split with less energy than the typical 237kj/mole.  

The obvious conclusion was that conventionally, most the energy consume in electrolysis is first converted to heat as stable atoms are converted to charged ions. (In electro-chemical cells the movement of electrons through an electrolyte is referred to as ions. The atom gains or looses an electron to become an ion and this process is very energy intensive).

The internal secondary galvanic energy performs its work using ions. Therefore, 95% of the energy is not converted from an external atom to an ion and this is where the energy efficiency is realised. 

Modern technologies achieve greater efficiency with integration. size and mass of a body does not have to restrict the work capacity when energy conservation is taken into consideration.

 

Within standard alkaline electrolyzers, converting a stable electron to an ion  is very energy intensive and consumes electrodes as atoms are converted to ions. 

Accelerating ions from internal galvanic metals is much more efficient and reduces metal erosion. For example, if it was simple metal oxidation, then the electrodes of the data lodged 227 minute efficiency test in the graphs above, would have consumed within 20 minutes and a performance drop-off displayed on the graph. The electrodes lasted the complete 3 month verification testing and were still in service when the test cell was made redundant.

Also the electrolyte is pre-conditioned to become an ionic substance which becomes more anodic than the electrodes. The electrolyte consumes the OH- ion so oxygen is not formed on a physical Anode. The chemistry is quite complex but accomplishing an energy combination at an ionic level means very little energy loss and ease of molecule separation.

The technology does not require expensive and scarce metals such as platinum, ruthenium or iridium used in most PEM type electrolyzers. The galvanic rods are made from low-cost and abundant metals and exchanged every 90 days.

Since the cell consists of common low cost metals the cost of a cubic meter cell is only 1/5 the cost of conventional electrolyzers. Also the cell construction and arrangement is much less complex and much easier to service.

 

View the up-to-date technology improvements including metal consumption rates and performance. <Click Here>

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Hydrogen Purity:

Pure hydrogen is produced. In conventional electrolysis the Anode is a solid metal plate that oxidises the hydroxide ion forming a bubble of oxygen gas. Within the electro-chemical process of this cell, the pre-conditioned electrolyte reduces the oxygen ions and releases the Hydrogen ion from the hydroxide. The Oxygen ion forms a covalent bonds with this  Anodic bi-product which in turn is removed with liquid circulation.  

 

We have confirmed the gas quality with: 1/ Oxygen line flow sensors,  2/ Ignition testing 3/ Chemical testing for other impurities and 4/ Direct feed to a PEM Fuel Cell (PEMFC).  A PEMFC is very sensitive to impure gas and the performance would drop off should the hydrogen not be 99% pure. (90% mix is safe, so adding more 0,99999 to the 99% purity number is irrelevant.)  

 

We achieve a steady 1.73% higher voltage with a 50% load on the PEMFC. (1.73% higher than hydrogen feed from a PEM Electrolyser with a rated 99.99% purity. both gasses were at the same temperature). These results are matched each time we run a three hour test. We have run enough tests on the PEMFC to be convinced that the output hydrogen is extremely pure. 

It is also to be noted that this green hydrogen is more pure than brown and blue hydrogen obtained from reformation, which inherently has a carbon-monoxide (CO) contamination content.

Byproducts:

There is no toxic by-product produced. The byproduct has a neutral PH of 7.

 

The only active item consumed is low cost galvanic metal rods. These decompose naturally over several months. Breaking down into minute particles that can be recycled or put back into the earth in the same non-toxic form as when they were first mined.

When stacked up beside other forms of alternative energies, this method has a very small total pollution footprint. When solar panels and storage batteries are consumed and decommissioned they will end up as toxic land fill resulting in a huge, repeating environmental impact.

News Update
H2IL Redefines their technology - Why?
(Click to view)

Working Proof:

Galvanic Consumption
Ion Accelerator
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