* Does it defy laws of thermodynamics ?
* How the natural energy is harvested ?
* Is it simply rapid oxidation of metals ?
The Science Behind The Technology
The Ion Accelerator is a controlled electro-chemical process where ions are accelerated by spontaneous redox reactions to dissociate water more efficiently than standard 237kj/mole brute-force electrolysis. The process is not a simple synthesis, but rather a highly controlled reaction.
Electro-chemistry is a very broad science with many untapped discoveries yet to be uncovered. A vast selection of electrode compositions, electrolyte composition and manipulation, membranes, catalysts materials and cell structure accumulating to well over 300 possibilities before process control is introduced. Therefore, it would be unreasonable to assume the science is unfounded due to the lack of general information and is why patents were granted to a novel invention.
Hydrogen is extracted from water using two energy sources. The primary input energy simply stimulates a secondary natural energy to perform work. The work results in extraction of as existing element by dissociating it from H2O and forming an H2 molecule.
The technology does not defy laws of thermodynamics:
We accept that a substance called Oil is extracted and is of little use as a fuel before refined. The complete process of producing an oil based fuel consumes less energy than the net usable energy (as fuel) without violating laws of thermodynamics. Both oil and hydrogen are an existing substance that can be used as a fuel, neither are created energies.
Also, The laws of thermodynamics allows for energy to be added from outside the isolated system. This support this technology since one form of energy draws in another form. But the laws of thermodynamics do not apply to the extraction of an existing fuel. Hydrogen is an existing element that is not created, it already exists and just needs to be extracted.
Too good to be true?
Close minded critics will apply this general cliché to any emerging technology rather than considering each on their own merits.. Historic case examples teach a good lesson in preconceived mindset. The airplane jet engine and silicon transistor were two classic cases of ‘too good to be true’. The jet engine experienced decades of criticism. How a non-propeller type method could move air over the wings, caused the scientists to label it as an insane idea. Likewise, the concept that a simple transistor could replace the well founded vacuum tube, received the same level of criticism. All were considered too good to be true, but open mined individuals turned these technologies into disruptive, lucrative business and changed the world while the conservative minded were left wishing 'if only…..'
The Ion Accelerator is not simply a rapid metal oxidation process.
The Ion Accelerator is a unique technology but the science is quite logical. Hydrogen is extracted from sea, or rain water and salt, with a method much less energy intensive than conventional brute-force electrolysis.
Rather than being the main force behind the process, the input electricity is simply a catalyst that stimulates a secondary natural reaction, to free the H2O bonds and release the hydrogen molecule with much less input energy than the standard 237kj/mole. As a result, an input to output energy efficiency greater than 100% is achieved.
Data lodging, of small suitcase verification testing unit, demonstrates efficiency increase over time as the ions accelerate faster. CLICK to ZOOM
How A Natural Energy Source Extracts Hydrogen:
To protect the valuable hidden IP, we don't publish any of the scientific complexities. However, following is a basic explanation of the technology.
Metals of differing voltage potentials are bi-metals in the Galvanic series. These metals are what induce a spontaneous charge within a primary cell battery. In the Ion Accelerator, the ions produced by Galvanic metals are accelerated to induce a charge potential high enough to dissociate water.
If the ions were first introduced to a cell, from stable atoms through external electricity, then it would still require 237kj per mole or 60kWh of electricity to produce a kilogram of hydrogen. Converting an atom to an ion is very energy intensive and is why conventional electrolyzers are energy intensive and generate so much heat.
H2IL discovered and developed a technique that accelerates this natural reaction by introducing a pours ion accelerating catalyst. Splitting the OH- bonds to fuel the galvanic metal oxidation with the oxygen ion. This in turn increases a spontaneous charge potential between the cathode and the galvanic metal to dissociates water at a much faster rate. A process that occurs while the atoms are ions and without chemicals, provides a condition for oxidation without rapid galvanic metal oxidation decay.
Click on image to view a comparison:
A catalyst that causes the Oxygen ion to release the bound H2 molecule with ease, rather than ripping them apart. The O2 ion increases the charge potential between the Cathode and the Galvanic Rods to accelerate the bond separation.
When immersed in sea water, a natural voltage potential between galvanic metals causes oxidation that releases hydrogen. This redox reaction is typically so slight that the release of hydrogen is hardly noticeable and the decay of metals takes several years.
This natural occurring oxidation process is enhanced to release Hydrogen from water bonds without rapid metal decay. With an efficiency greater than 2000%, only a small portion of the fuel is converted back into electricity, through fuel cells, to provide the input (reaction governing) stimulus charge.
The amount of hydrogen generated is only limited by scale and the volume of internal galvanic metal. For example the cubic meter cell produces 1kg/H2 for just 1.2kWh (or 1.2kW of power per kg/H2 over a one hour period) input power and accelerates by a slight increase of the input voltage.
Data lodging, of small suitcase verification testing unit, demonstrates O/P power increase with slight rise of I/P stimulus power. CLICK to ZOOM
The technology is not conventional electrolysis that requires brute-force energy at a rate of 237KJ per mole of H2O or 60kWh per kg/H2.
One may conclude that if only 5% of the 237kl/mole is provided by the input power then the remaining 225kj/mole must be harvested from the galvanic metals. This is a lot of energy for any non-radioactive metal to deliver, or the mass must be huge and consume rapidly. Admittedly, this calculus initially stumbled the H2IL scientists when the discovery was first made many years ago. But, test after test proved a defined fact, that water can be split with less energy than the typical 237kj/mole.
The obvious conclusion was that conventionally, most the energy consume in electrolysis is first converted to heat as stable atoms are converted to charged ions. (In electro-chemical cells the movement of electrons through an electrolyte is referred to as ions. The atom gains or looses an electron to become an ion and this process is very energy intensive).
The internal secondary galvanic energy performs its work using ions. Therefore, 95% of the energy is not converted from an external atom to an ion and this is where the energy efficiency is realised.
Modern technologies achieve greater efficiency with integration. Some examples include battery technology where increased capacity is achieved for a smaller cell mass and size. LED lighting delivers the same Lumens for much less energy consumption than the old incandescent light technology. The list of examples could fill this page but the point is that size and mass of a body does not have to restrict the work capacity when energy conservation is taken into consideration.
Within standard alkaline electrolyzers, converting a stable electron to an ion is very energy intensive and consumes electrodes as atoms are converted to ions.
Accelerating ions from internal galvanic metals is much more efficient and reduces metal erosion. For example, if it was simple metal oxidation, then the electrodes of the data lodged 227 minute efficiency test in the graphs above, would have consumed within 20 minutes and a performance drop-off displayed on the graph. The electrodes lasted the complete 3 month verification testing and were still in service when the test cell was made redundant.
Also the electrolyte is pre-conditioned to become an ionic substance which becomes more anodic than the electrodes. The electrolyte consumes the OH- ion so oxygen is not formed on a physical Anode. The chemistry is quite complex but accomplishing an energy combination at an ionic level means very little energy loss and ease of molecule separation.
The technology does not require expensive and scarce metals such as platinum, ruthenium or iridium used in most PEM type electrolyzers. The galvanic rods are made from low-cost and abundant metals and exchanged every 90 days.
View the up-to-date technology improvements including metal consumption rates and performance. <Click Here>
Pure hydrogen is produced. In conventional electrolysis the Anode is a solid metal plate that oxidises the hydroxide ion forming a bubble of oxygen gas. Within the electro-chemical process of this cell, the pre-conditioned electrolyte reduces the oxygen ions and releases the Hydrogen ion from the hydroxide. The Oxygen ion forms a covalent bonds with this Anodic bi-product which in turn is removed with liquid circulation.
We have confirmed the gas quality with: 1/ Oxygen line flow sensors, 2/ Ignition testing 3/ Chemical testing for other impurities and 4/ Direct feed to a PEM Fuel Cell (PEMFC). A PEMFC is very sensitive to impure gas and the performance would drop off should the hydrogen not be 99% pure. (90% mix is safe, so adding more 0,99999 to the 99% purity number is irrelevant.)
We achieve a steady 1.73% higher voltage with a 50% load on the PEMFC. (1.73% higher than hydrogen feed from a PEM Electrolyser with a rated 99.99% purity. both gasses were at the same temperature). These results are matched each time we run a three hour test. We have run enough tests on the PEMFC to be convinced that the output hydrogen is extremely pure.
It is also to be noted that this green hydrogen is more pure than brown and blue hydrogen obtained from reformation, which inherently has a carbon-monoxide (CO) contamination content.
There is no toxic by-product produced. The byproduct has a neutral PH of 7.
The only active item consumed is low cost galvanic metal rods. These decompose naturally over several months. Breaking down into minute particles that can be recycled or put back into the earth in the same non-toxic form as when they were first mined.
When stacked up beside other forms of alternative energies, this method has a very small total pollution footprint. When solar panels and storage batteries are consumed and decommissioned they will end up as toxic land fill resulting in a huge, repeating environmental impact.